FP7 logo euThe ESNATS project has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° HEALTH-F5-2008-201619

Embryonic Stem cell-based Novel Alternative Testing Strategies

What does 3R stand for?

3R stands for reduction, refinement and replacement (W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique):

  • "Reduction" aims to reduce the number of test animals
  • "Refinement" of tests, i.e. that alleviate or minimise pain, suffering and distress of test animals
  • "Replacement" aims to obtain equivalent results without using animal experiments
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