What does 3R stand for?
3R stands for reduction, refinement and replacement (W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique):
- "Reduction" aims to reduce the number of test animals
- "Refinement" of tests, i.e. that alleviate or minimise pain, suffering and distress of test animals
- "Replacement" aims to obtain equivalent results without using animal experiments